Event Details

Title:Runway Collision involving Trans World Airlines Flight 427 and Superior Aviation Cessna 441, Bridgeton, Missouri, November 22, 1994
Micro summary:An MD-82 collides with a Cessna 441 on the active runway, destroying the Cessna.
Event Time:1994-11-22 at 2203 CST
File Name:1994-11-22-US.pdf
Publishing Agency:National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)
Publishing Country:USA
Report number:NTSB-AAR-95-05
Site of event:Takeoff; Taxi; RWY 30R
Latitude/Longitude:N3844'9", W9021'6" (original transposed " and ')
First AirplaneSecond Airplane
Departure:Lambert Saint Louis International Airport, St. Louis, Missouri, USALambert-St. Louis International Airport, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
Destination:DenverFord Airport, Iron Mountain, Michigan, USA
Airplane Type(s):McDonnell Douglas DC-9-82 (MD-82)Cessna 441
Flight Phase:TakeoffTaxi
Operator(s):Trans World AirlinesSuperior Aviation
Type of flight:RevenueFerry
Serious Injuries:80
Other Injuries:0
Executive Summary:On November 22, 1994, at 2203 central standard time, Trans World Airlines flight 427, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-82 (MD-82), N954U, collided with a Cessna 441, N441KM, at the intersection of runway 30R and taxiway Romeo, at the Lambert-St. Louis International Airport (STL) in Bridgeton, Missouri. The MD-82 was operating as a regularly scheduled passenger flight from STL to Denver, Colorado. The flight was conducted under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 121. There were 132 passengers, five flight attendants, and three flightcrew members aboard the airplane. The MD-82 sustained substantial damage during the collision. The Cessna 441, operated by Superior Aviation, Inc., as a 14 CFR Part 91 positioning flight, was destroyed. The commercial pilot and the passenger, who was rated as a private pilot, were the sole occupants on board the Cessna and were killed. Of the 140 persons on board the MD-82, eight passengers sustained minor injuries during the evacuation.

The National Transportation Safety Board determines that the probable cause of this accident was: the Cessna 441 pilot's mistaken belief that his assigned departure runway was runway 30R, which resulted in his undetected entrance onto runway 30R, which was being used by the MD-82 for its departure. Contributing to the accident was the lack of Automatic Terminal Information Service and other air traffic control (ATC) information regarding the occasional use of runway 31 for departure. The installation and utilization of Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3), and particularly ASDE-3 enhanced with the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS), could have prevented this accident.

Safety issues discussed in the report include aircraft lighting and conspicuity; airport markings, signs, and lighting; runway 31 designation, utilization, displaced threshold; ATC and pilot phraseology (specifically, the term "back-taxi"); pilot training; runway incursion detectionlprevention methods; and ASDE/AMASS development. Safety recommendations concerning some of these issues were made to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Also as a result of the investigation of this accident, the Safety Board issued safety recommendations to the FAA on February 28, 1995, concerning the runway incursion issue
Learning Keywords:Operations - Airport Markings or Lighting
Operations - Airspace - Air Traffic Control
Operations - Evacuation
Operations - Runway Collision
Operations - Ground Collision
Operations - Runway Incursion
Other - Post-Crash Survivability
Consequence - Hull Loss
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Runway Collision, United Express Flight 5925 and Beechcraft King Air A90, Quincy Municipal Airport, Quincy, Illinois, November 19, 1996
Ground collision, Collision between KLM Boeing 747 PH-BUF and Pan Am boeing 747, N737PA at Los Rodeos (Tenerife Norte) on March 27, 1977
Runway Collision, Korean Air Lines, McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30, HL7339, Southcentral Air Piper PA-31-350, N35206, Anchorage, Alaska, December 23, 1983
Runway collision of USAir Flight 1493, Boeing 737 and Skywest Flight 5569 FairChild Metroliner, Los Angeles International Airport, Los Angeles, California, February 1, 1991
Runway collision of Eastern Airlines Boeing 727, Flight 111 and Epps Air Service Beechcraft King Air A100, Atlanta Hartsfield International Airport, Atlanta, Georgia, January 18, 1990


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